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Bruce Hirsch

Bruce Hirsch, PhD

Associate Professor

Department: Neurobiology & Anatomy


  • PhD in Anatomy - University of Pennsylvania (1974)
  • BS in Zoology - University of Chicago (1966)

Dr. Hirsch is an associate professor in the Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy at Drexel University College of Medicine. His primary responsibility is teaching first-year medical students. In the past he has taught medical gross anatomy, lower extremity anatomy, embryology, and microscopic anatomy. He is currently involved in teaching gross and microscopic anatomy to medical students.

Prior to coming to Drexel, Dr. Hirsch spent over 25 years on the faculty at Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, formerly the Pennsylvania College of Podiatric Medicine. He has also held appointments at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria, and the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School in Jerusalem. He is also currently an adjunct associate professor in the Department of Radiology of the University of Pennsylvania.

Research Interests

3D imaging and joint biomechanics


Dr. Hirsch's main area of research is functional gross anatomy and biomechanics using three dimensional imaging techniques, primarily of the lower limb and cervical spine. He and his colleagues have developed methods for imaging the regions of interest in various positions through a joint’s range of motion, converting those image data to 3D, and computing and displaying the motions of the bones involved. In addition, he has used other means for investigating the functional anatomy of the limb.

3D images of joints

In the Media


Recent Selected Publications

"Does the Terminologia Anatomica Really Matter?" [Viewpoint Article]
Hirsch, B.E.
Clin. Anat. 24: 503-504 (2011).

"Efficient computation of enclosed volume and surface area from the same triangulated surface representation"
Nyström, I., Grevera, G., Hirsch, B.E., and Udupa, J.K.
Comp. Med. Imaging Graph. 35: 460-471 (2011).

"Clinical anatomy of quadriceps femoris and the extensor apparatus of the knee"
Waligora, A.C., Johanson, N.A., and Hirsch, B.E.
Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 467: 3297- 3306 (2009).

"The application of 3D image processing to studies of the musculoskeletal system"
Hirsch, B.E., Udupa, J.K., Siegler, S., and Winkelstein, B.A.
In MIPPR 2009: Medical Imaging, Parallel Processing of Images, and Optimization Techniques, edited by Jianguo Liu, Kunio Doi, Aaron Fenster, S. C. Chan, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 7497: 74971B-1 – 74971B-6.   Bellingham, WA: SPIE (2009).

"Rigid model-based 3D segmentation of the bones of joints in MR and CT images for motion analysis"
Liu JK, Udupa JK, Saha PK, Odhner D, Hirsch BE, Siegler S, Simon S, and Winkelstein BA
Med. Phys. 35: 3637-3649 (2008).

"A framework for evaluating image segmentation algorithms"
Udupa JK, Leblanc VR, Zhuge Y, Imielinska C, Schmidt H, Currie LM, Hirsch BE, and Woodburn J
Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 30:75-87 (2006).

"The effect of ankle ligament damage and surgical reconstructions on the mechanics of the ankle and subtalar joints revealed by three dimensional stress MRI (3D sMRI)"
Ringleb SI, Udupa JK, Siegler S, Imhauser CW, Hirsch BE, Liu J, Odhner, D., Saha PK, Okereke E, Roach N
J. Orthop. Res. 23: 743-749 (2005).

"Model-based 3D segmentation of the bones of joints in medical images"
Liu J, Udupa JK, Saha PK, Odhner D, Hirsch BE, Siegler S, Simon S, Winkelstein BA
Proceedings of SPIE: Medical Imaging, Volume 5747, pp. 1793-1803 (2005).

"Mechanics of the ankle and subtalar joints revealed through a 3D quasi-static stress MRI technique"
Siegler S, Udupa, JK, Ringleb SI, Imhauser CW, Hirsch BE, Odhner D, Saha PK, Okereke E, and Roach N
J. Biomech., 38: 567-578 (2005).

"3D stress MRI for studying the functional pathologies of the ankle complex"
Udupa JK, Siegler S, Hirsch BE, Ringleb SI, Okereke E, Roach N, Imhauser CW, Odhner D, Liu J, and Saha PK
Medical Imaging 2004: Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, Proc. SPIE 5369: 722-729 (2004).

"Iso-shaping rigid bodies for estimating their motion from image sequences"
Saha PK, Udupa JK, Falcão AX, Hirsch BE, and Siegler S
IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, 23: 63-72 (2004).

"Model-based 3D segmentation of the bones of the ankle and subtalar joints in MR images"
Liu J, Udupa JK, Saha PK, Odhner PK, Hirsch BE, and Siegler S
SPIE 5032: 1650-1657 (2003).

"Area of and volume enclosed by digital and triangulated surfaces"
Nystroem I, Udupa JK, Grevera GJ, and Hirsch BE
Medical Imaging 2002: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display, Proc. SPIE 4681: 669-680 (2002).

"Iso-shaping Rigid Bodies for estimating their motion from image sequences"
Saha P, Udupa JK, and Hirsch BE
Medical Imaging 2002: Image Processing, SPIE 4684: 343-352 (2002).

"The geometric architecture of the subtalar and midtarsal joints in rheumatoid arthritis based on magnetic resonance imaging"
Woodburn J, Udupa JK, Hirsch BE, Wakefield RJ, Helliwell PS, Reay M, O’Connor P, Budgen A, and Emery P
Arthritis Rheum, 46: 3168-3177 (2002).

"An in vivo analysis of the motion of the peri-talar joint complex based on MR imaging"
Stindel E, Udupa JK, Hirsch BE, and Odhner D
IEEE Transac. Biomed. Eng. 48: 236-247 (2001).

"Pennation angles of the intrinsic muscles of the foot"
Ledoux WR, Hirsch BE, Church T, and Caunin M
J. Biomechanics 34: 399-403 (2001).

Contact Information

Research Office

Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy
2900 W. Queen Lane
Philadelphia, PA 19129
Phone: 215.991.8463
Fax: 215.843.9082